代写essay代写Assignment代写Dissertation辅导方案

当前位置: 首页 > 精品范例 > 英国作业代写essayassignment
英国作业代写essayassignment

英国谢菲尔德大学Business Strategy硕士范文

英国谢菲尔德大学Business Strategy硕士范文
  • 国家 : 英国
  • 级别 :
  • 专业 :
英国谢菲尔德商科辅导范例

详细描述

 

An Structured Literature Review of the Impact of Stress Factors on International Students Academic Performance

 

Table of Content

 

 

 

Abstract      4

Chapter 1: Introduction      5

1.1 Background      5

1.2 Purpose      8

1.3 Conceptual Framework      10

Chapter 2 Methodology      13

2.1 Aim      13

2.2 Research Design      13

2.3 Literature Selection      14

2.4 Search outcome      17

2.5 Quality appraisal      17

2.6 Data abstraction      18

2.7 Synthesis      18

Chapter 3 Results      19

3.1 Result Synthesis      29

Chapter 4 Discussion      43

4.1 Findings 1: Stressors among international students      44

4.2 Findings: Consequences of excessive stress      52

4.3 Recommendations      55

CHAPTER 5 Conclusion      56

5.1 Strengths and Limitations of the Study      56

5.2 Conclusion      58

CHAPTER 6 References      62

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

This systematic reviewed literature aimed for investigate the academic stressors that could impact on the academic performance of international students. The stressors like pressure from normal academic activities, bad study skills and habits have been identified in the project. Moreover, psychological factors like low conscientious and high neuroticism had tight and positive relationship with the level of academic stress. In addition to this, low self-efficacy is the main factor that causes the stress. Furthermore, difference culture is the main stressor and lead stress perceived by international students. This project also presented the negative consequences of excessive stress and provided the recommendation to the students.         

 

 

 

 

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background

International education has become a highly debated and rehashed topic in last two decades. On the one hand, the factors of high quality education in developed countries, establishment of numerous scholarships in university, university promotion (for example, establishment of UK High Education Brand), flexibility of major choice and improvement of employability due to oversea study experience are positively stimulated the development of international education (Li, Chen and Duanmu, 2010; Womble, 2010). On the other hand, the progress of thought and low cost and more frequent flights not only contributed the flow of international students among continent (for example, the popularities of international education in Europe) (Li, Chen and Duanmu, 2010), but also financially and practically enhanced the cross-continents international education (Misra & Castillo, 2004). It is certain that international education could provide the significant financial benefits to host country. The table 1 provided by NAFSA (2012) describes the data about economy income from international education for America from year 2011 to 2012. According to the table, the components of the financial profits comprised by tuition fees, living expenses and dependents’ living Expenses.  And the net income from international education reduced costs of

 

 

Total Number of Foreign Students:

$723277

Contribution from Tuition and Fees:

$14,348,000,000

Contribution from living Expenses:

$13,207,000,000

Total Contribution by Foreign students:

$27,555,000,000

Less U.S Support of 27.9%

- $7,700,000,000

Plus Dependents’ Living Expenses:

+ $378,000,000

Net Contribution to U.S Economy by Foreign Students and their families:

 $20,232,000,000

Table 1 Source: NAFSA (2012)

 

local society supports can still reached 20 billion dollars. However, the significant meaning of international education is much more than just a business. Li, Chen and Duanmu (2010) also highlighted the importance of strength educational ability in host country or cooperating countries by establishment of foreigner campus, cooperative education and international research collaboration. Moreover, the injection of diverse cultural perspectives to local society is able to fulfill the learning experience and allow the culture exchanges for all students (Misra, Crist and Burant, 2003). Despite of huge benefits from international education, many scholars begin to notice the issues come with the popularities of international education (Womble, 2010; Li, Cheng, & Duanmu, 2010; Misra & Castillo, 2004). Particularly, the main focus has been put on the international students learning experience.

To the most the international students, the main objective of study abroad is to achieve personal academic goals, which means they might have to overcome the common academic stresses that also experience by local students (Li, Chen and Duanmu, 2010), meanwhile, they have to conquer the unique stresses generated from culture difference. Culture exchanges seems the necessary part of international student’s oversea learning experience (Potrazli, Thukral, & Durn, 2010). They need to adopt the new academic culture that might greatly different from their old learning environment (Potrazli, Thukral, & Durn, 2010). Fail in adjustment of a new culture will cause the stress and impair on their academic life and normal life (Potrazli, Thukral, & Durn, 2010). 

International students have many barriers to conquer in order to achieve their expected academic goals(Li, Chen and Duanmu, 2010). During the process of goal accomplishment, there are many variables that could influence the final results of the study (Li, Chen and Duanmu, 2010). DeDeyn (2008) suggested that the level of academic stress significantly and negatively related academic performance. Academic stress defined by (Misra, Crist, & Burant, 2003) as psychological pressures or stress caused by demands of academic life. Academic stress can be seen as the stress that generated from the requirements of amount of academic demands (Misra, Crist & Burant, 2003), for example, the demands for passing or gaining a high grade on series examinations or project conducting (Li, Chen and Duanmu, 2010). Although the range of low to median level of academic stress could have the positive motivational effects on students, the negative consequence lead by excess academic stress cannot be neglected and should take into account as well (Noftle & Robins, 2007). Stressors defined by Yucha, Kowalski and Cross (2009) as internal or external demands that lead individual had behavior adjustment. The sources of academic stress that negatively associated with the academic performance are diverse based on different aspects (Li, Chen and Duanmu, 2010). Many studies highlighted the exploration of stressors among international students should from general body of students to the specially stress-focused group of international students (Womble, 2010; Misra, Crist, & Burant, 2003; Misra & Castillo, 2004; Li, Cheng, & Duanmu, 2010). This is because those two groups of students could share most of the common stressors but different on the perception of the stress.

 

 

 

1.2 Purpose

Although there was numerous studies have examined the impact of stress on general body of students (Agolla and Ongori, 2009; Kadapatti and Vijaylaxmi, 2012; Poyrazil, thukral and Durm, 2010; Misra, Castilllo, 2004), less research could provide targeted supports to international students. Some research revealed that common stressors like financial problem, high aspiration, poor performance in study and course-related stress are sharing by local and international students (Kadapatti and Vijaylaxmi, 2012; Misra & Castillo, 2004). Others pointed out the particular stressors like language problems and low social interactions experience by international student (Poyrazil, Thukral & Dum, 2010; Li, Chen and Duanmu, 2010). According to Kadapatti and Vijayalaxmi (2012) students’ reactions to the stressor will differ from the various perceptions. Due to the fact that international student come from various culture backgrounds, the cope strategies of could be differ (Li, Chen and Duanmu, 2010). Therefore, there is need to conduct a research specially examining international students learning experiences and provide a relatively compete solutions to meet the requirements.

Although most of the research have failed to prove the conclusive effects of stress on students’ academic performance (), the determinant effects between stress and academic performance could found on international students due to the new challenges they will facing. Therefore, the hypothesis of conducting this project is:

 

The amount of stress perceived by international students had negative association with their academic performance. 

 

 

This study is conducted to know how stress factors impact on international students academic performance. Specifically, the question will be answered by following sub-questions: 

 

1.What are the sources of international students perceived stress that could influence the academic performance? 

 

2.What are the consequences of academic stress on international students?

 

3.What are the recommendations to the international students stress reduction?

 

 

 

1.3 Conceptual Framework

 

There were many ways to distinguish the stressors, the board sense of dimension suggested by Hong and Zhang (2011) are two types of academic stressors: the first type is related academic expectation and achievements and the second type is regarded to social factors which is about keeping and improving the social relationships. Moreover, McKenzie and Schweizer (2003) examined the predictors of academic performance and grouped academic stressors into four catalogues: academic factors, psychological factors, cognitive factors and demographic factors. Considering the aim of this project is to present an as fully as possible summary of the stressors experienced by international students, the conceptual framework conducted by Imeokparia and Ediagbonya (2012) was used to guide the main part of the project. It not only provided the particular academic stressors classification but also illustrated the treatment to the stress and consequences of stress. In addition to this, due to the objective of Imeokparia and Ediagbonya’s academic stress conceptual framework is not to international students. Li, Chen and Duanmu (2010) supported international students were usually stressed by transition issues. Therefore, the transition factors experience only by international students has been input into the framework.    

The revised Imeokparia and Ediagbonya (2012) Model (table 2) on academic stress management indicate the classification of the academic stressors and the consequences of stress. The left hand side of the flow chart introduced the several factors that cause the academic stress reactions, containing academic factors, psychology factors, cognitive factors, social support factors and economic factors. The results of stressors accumulation will lead individual feel stressed that presented in the middle of the chart. The right hand side

此图保护版权不显示

Table 2 Revised Academic stress management conceptual framework (original framework from Imeokparia and Ediabonya, 2012)

 

describes stress control phrase. The four active coping strategies for stress reduction are acknowledge the stressors, keep away from the avoidable stressors, change or improve the stressors and living with the stressors. Excessive stress can impair students’ academic performance and productivity. In addition to this, health problem will become alarming issue.

 

 

Chapter 2 Methodology

 

2.1 Aim

The overall purpose of this project is demonstrating a summary of a structured literature review that related to the impacts of academic stress on international students academic performance. The common sources of stress generated from the academic life of general body students and international students transition issues will firstly established. Then the consequences of academic stress and recommendations will established from careful reviewing of the literature.

 

2.2 Research Design

 

The revised academic stress conceptual framework used to guide the systematic reviewing. Based on the framework and the aim of the research, the total results from literature review have been dispersed in three parts. The first part will used to give an overview of stressors that includes academic factors, psychological factors, cognitive factors, social support factors, economic factors and transition factors. The second part used to demonstrate the consequences of the stress. The recommendations that contribute the international students stress reduction have been provided in the last part.

     

2.3 Literature Selection

The description of literature searching strategy will be provided in this section. Firstly, the literature review searching tools will be described. Moreover, the inclusion and exclusion of material selection criteria will be demonstrated. Then the application of the articles in each part will be given.    

 

The first inclusion documents selection criteria is the year range of selected academic materials were from year 2003 to 2013. The reason for that is selecting materials for the previous ten years could keep the reliability of research and reduce the possibilities of research basis in some extend (Burns and Grove, 2009). Moreover, the main type of materials is journal from academic publisher. The academic quality could promise the objectivity of this project. Furthermore, all of the articles were write in English. In addition to this, all the articles accessing was free of charge due to lacking of funding. The last criterion is the content of articles were limited to the stressor among students, international students transaction issues and the negative effects of academic stress. On the other hand, excluded documents selection criteria are the studies about high-school stress management and organizational stress management.

 

Heriot-Watt university online library database was applied on the article searching by using my students’ account. It provided large number of electronic journals to be downloaded.

Moreover, because I am living in China, most of the databases linked with Heriot-watt online library cannot be visited. Search engine like Google Scholar has been adopted for the searching. Google Scholar is a reliable search tools to acquire academic literature.

Other literature was gained from various academic organization website who have the study on the academic stress by general body of students or international students. The details of those use has been described in table 2.

 

Table 2

Academic organization

Findings

Bournemouth University

Stressors of International students

University of Kentucky

Cognitive and psychological factors related stressors. 

The University of North Carolina at Charlotte

Stressors among college students.

 

 

Addition theory leading this project is Big five personality theories. Many research indicated that individual difference would lead difference level of stress perception among students. Big Five personality theory will be applied on this study to determine the significant stressors (O’ Connor and Paunonen, 2007; Komarraju, Karau and Schmeck, 2009).

 

The following keywords were used for searching purpose:

lAcademic stress;

lInternational students;

lAcademic stressors;

lAcademic performance

lConsequences of academic stress;

lStress reduction strategies

点击次数:  更新时间:2014-09-01  【打印此页】  【关闭